Arduino - OLED

The OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) display is an alternative for LCD display. The OLED is super-light, almost paper-thin, flexible, and produce a brighter and crisper picture.

In this tutorial, we are going to learn:

Hardware Required

1×Arduino UNO or Genuino UNO
1×USB 2.0 cable type A/B
1×SSD1306 I2C OLED Display 128x64
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 9V Power Adapter for Arduino
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About OLED Display

There are many types of OLED display. They differ from each other in communication interface, sizes and colors:

  • Communication interface: I2C, SPI
  • Size: 128x64, 128×32...
  • Color: white, blue, dual color...
Arduino OLED

SPI is generally faster than I2C but requires more Arduino pins. While I2C requires only two pins and can be shared with other I2C peripherals. It’s a trade-off between pins and communication speed. The choice is up to you. For OLED with I2C interface, there are several types of driver such as SSD1306, SH1106 driver . This tutorial uses SSD1306 I2C OLED Display 128x64 and 128x32

I2C OLED Display Pinout

  • GND pin: should be connected to the ground of Arduino
  • VCC pin: is the power supply for the display which we connect the 5 volts pin on the Arduino.
  • SCL pin: is a serial clock pin for I2C interface.
  • SDA pin: is a serial data pin for I2C interface.
OLED Pinout

※ NOTE THAT:

  • The order of the OLED module's pins can vary between manufacturers and module types. ALWAYS use the labels printed on the OLED module. Look closely!
  • This tutorial uses the OLED display that uses the SSD1306 I2C driver. We have tested with the OLED display from DIYables. It works without any issues.

Wiring Diagram

  • Wiring diagram between Arduino and OLED 128x64
Arduino OLED wiring diagram

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

  • The real wiring diagram between Arduino and OLED 128x64
Arduino OLED 128x64 wiring diagram

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

  • The real wiring diagram between Arduino and OLED 128x32
Arduino OLED 128x32 wiring diagram

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

If you use other Arduino other than Uno, the pins are different. Refer below table for other Arduino

OLED Module Arduino Uno, Nano Arduino Mega
Vin 5V 5V
GND GND GND
SDA A4 20
SCL A5 21

How To Use OLED with Arduino

Install SSD1306 OLED library

  • On Arduino IDE, go to Tools Manage Libraries
Arduino add library
  • Search “SSD1306”, then find the SSD1306 library by Adafruit
  • Click Install button to install the library.
Arduino OLED library
  • You will be asked for intalling some other library dependencies
  • Click Install All button to install all library dependencies.
Arduino Adafruit GFX sensor library

How to program for OLED

  • Include library
#include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
  • Define the screen size if OLED 123x64
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels
  • Define the screen size if OLED 128x32
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 32 // OLED display height, in pixels
  • Declare an SSD1306 OLED object
// declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);
  • In setup() function, initialize OLED display
// initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); }
  • And then you can display text, images, draw line ...

※ NOTE THAT:

From this point on, all codes are provided for OLED 128x64, but you can easily adapt for OLED 128x32 by changing the screen size and adjusts coordinates if needed

Arduino Code - Display Text on OLED

/* * Created by ArduinoGetStarted.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://arduinogetstarted.com/tutorials/arduino-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.clearDisplay(); // clear display oled.setTextSize(1); // text size oled.setTextColor(WHITE); // text color oled.setCursor(0, 10); // position to display oled.println("Hello World!"); // text to display oled.display(); // show on OLED } void loop() { }

The below are some functions that you can use to display text on the OLED:

  • oled.clearDisplay(): all pixels are off
  • oled.drawPixel(x,y, color): plot a pixel in the x,y coordinates
  • oled.setTextSize(n): set the font size, supports sizes from 1 to 8
  • oled.setCursor(x,y): set the coordinates to start writing text
  • oled.setTextColor(WHITE): set the text color
  • oled.setTextColor(BLACK, WHITE): set the text color, background color
  • oled.println(“message”): print the characters
  • oled.println(number): print a number
  • oled.println(number, HEX): print a number IN hex format
  • oled.display(): call this method for the changes to make effect
  • oled.startscrollright(start, stop): scroll text from left to right
  • oled.startscrollleft(start, stop): scroll text from right to left
  • oled.startscrolldiagright(start, stop): scroll text from left bottom corner to right upper corner
  • oled.startscrolldiagleft(start, stop): scroll text from right bottom corner to left upper corner
  • oled.stopscroll(): stop scrolling

How to vertical and horizontal center align text/number on OLED

See How to vertical/horizontal center on OLED

Arduino Code - Drawing on OLED

/* * Created by ArduinoGetStarted.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://arduinogetstarted.com/tutorials/arduino-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.setCursor(0, 0); } void loop() { // draw rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawRect(0, 15, 60, 40, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillRect(0, 15, 60, 40, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw the round rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawRoundRect(0, 15, 60, 40, 8, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill the round rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillRoundRect(0, 15, 60, 40, 8, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw circle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawCircle(20, 35, 20, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill circle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillCircle(20, 35, 20, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw triangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawTriangle(30, 15, 0, 60, 60, 60, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill triangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillTriangle(30, 15, 0, 60, 60, 60, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); }

Arduino Code – Display Image

To draw image on OLED, we have to convert the image (any format) to the bitmap array first. The conversion can be done by using this online tool. Please see how to convert image to bitmap array on the below image. I converted the Arduino icon to bitmap array.

image to bitmap array

After converting, copy the array code and update the array code in the ArduinoIcon array in the below code

/* * Created by ArduinoGetStarted.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://arduinogetstarted.com/tutorials/arduino-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); // bitmap of arduino-icon image const unsigned char ArduinoIcon [] PROGMEM = { // 'arduino-icon', 128x64px 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x07, 0x80, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0x80, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xc0, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xe0, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x07, 0x80, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff }; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.setCursor(0, 0); } void loop() { oled.clearDisplay(); // display bitmap oled.drawBitmap(0, 0, ArduinoIcon, 128, 64, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // invert display oled.invertDisplay(1); delay(2000); }

※ NOTE THAT:

  • The image size should be smaller than or equal to screen size.
  • If you want to adapt the above code for OLED 128x32, you need to recale image and change width/ height in oled.drawBitmap(); function

OLED Troubleshooting

If OLED does not display any thing, please do the following check list:

  • Make sure that your wiring is correct.
  • Make sure that your I2C OLED uses SSD1306 Driver.
  • Check the I2C address of OLED by running the below I2C Address Scanner code on Arduino
// I2C address scanner program #include <Wire.h> void setup() { Wire.begin(); Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("I2C Scanner"); } void loop() { byte error, address; int nDevices; Serial.println("Scanning..."); nDevices = 0; for(address = 1; address < 127; address++ ) { Wire.beginTransmission(address); error = Wire.endTransmission(); if (error == 0) { Serial.print("I2C device found at address 0x"); if (address < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(address,HEX); Serial.println(" !"); nDevices++; } else if (error==4) { Serial.print("Unknown error at address 0x"); if (address < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.println(address,HEX); } } if (nDevices == 0) Serial.println("No I2C devices found"); else Serial.println("done"); delay(5000); // wait 5 seconds for next scan }

The result on Serial Monitor:

COM6
Send
Scanning... I2C device found at address 0x3C ! done Scanning... I2C device found at address 0x3C ! done
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

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