Arduino - DIP Switch

DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are commonly used in electronics for configuration purposes, such as setting device addresses, enabling or disabling features, etc. In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to use the DIP switch with Arduino. In detail, we will learn:

Arduino with DIP Switch

Hardware Required

1×Arduino UNO or Genuino UNO
1×USB 2.0 cable type A/B
1×DIP Switch
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 9V Power Adapter for Arduino
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Block Shield for Arduino Uno
1×(Optional) Transparent Acrylic Enclosure For Arduino Uno

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Please note: These are Amazon affiliate links. If you buy the components through these links, We will get a commission at no extra cost to you. We appreciate it.

About DIP Switch

DIP switches are primarily used for device configuration, allowing users to set parameters such as, device address, communication settings, security codes, operation mode, and system preferences across various industries and applications.

A DIP switch is made up of several small slide switches all packaged together. Each of these slide switches is referred to as a "position". DIP switches come in various types depending on the number of positions they have. For instance, there are 2-position DIP switches, 4-position DIP switches, 5-position DIP switches, 6-position DIP switches, 8-position DIP switches, and 10-position DIP switches.

A DIP switch can represent for a configurable number a configurable number. Each position on the switch corresponds to a bit of the number. By toggling the positions between ON and OFF, we can set the desired number we want.

Pinout

DIP Switch Pinout
image source: diyables.io

A DIP switch consists of dual rows of pins, with the quantity of pins in each row corresponding to the number of switch positions available. For example, a 4-position DIP switch comprises a total of 8 pins, evenly distributed with 4 pins on each side. Within the DIP switch assembly, every pair of opposing pins constitutes a slide switch. It's noteworthy that distinguishing between pins on the two sides isn't necessary since they are interchangeable.

How It Works

In the DIP switches, when a switch is in the ON position, it means that the switch is closed. This means that the electrical connection is made, allowing current to flow through the switch.

Conversely, when a switch is in the OFF position, it means that the switch is open. In this state, the electrical connection is broken, and current cannot flow through the switch.

So, to clarify:

  • ON position: Closed circuit, allowing current to flow.
  • OFF position: Open circuit, blocking current flow.

When we connect a side of a switch to GND, the other to Arduino pin, then configure Arduino pin as pull-up digital input, the below table shown the relation between switch position and the values read from Arduino:

DIP switch position Binary representation Circuit state Arduino pin state
ON 1 CLOSED LOW
OFF 0 OPEN HIGH

In the next parts, we will use 4-position DIP switch for example. You can easily to adapt for 2-position DIP switches, 3-position DIP switches, 5-position DIP switches, 6-position DIP switches, 8-position DIP switches, and 10-position DIP switches...

Wiring Diagram

Arduino DIP switch Wiring Diagram

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

Arduino Code - DIP Switch

We will learn through two pieces of code:

  • Reading the ON/OFF state of individual position on the DIP switch.
  • Encoding the positions into a number.

Arduino code - Reading the ON/OFF state of the DIP switch

/* * Created by ArduinoGetStarted.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://arduinogetstarted.com/tutorials/arduino-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { 2, 3, 4, 5 }; void setup() { // initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // set the dip switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { // Read the state of each switch position for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { Serial.print("position "); Serial.print(i + 1); Serial.print(": "); int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) Serial.println("ON "); else Serial.println("OFF "); } Serial.println(); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Quick Steps

  • Do wiring as above wiring diagram
  • Connect Arduino to PC via USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE
  • Select the right board and port
  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to Arduino
  • Switch each position on the DIP Switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor.
COM6
Send
position 1: OFF position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: ON
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Arduino code - Encoding the states of DIP switch into a number

/* * Created by ArduinoGetStarted.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://arduinogetstarted.com/tutorials/arduino-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { 2, 3, 4, 5 }; void setup() { // Initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // Set the DIP switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { int encoded_state = 0; for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) encoded_state |= 1 << (POSITION_NUM - i - 1); } Serial.print("encoded state: "); Serial.println(encoded_state); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Quick Steps

  • Upload the above code to Arduino
  • Switch each position on the DIP switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor, it look like below.
COM6
Send
encoded state: 0 encoded state: 1 encoded state: 2 encoded state: 3 encoded state: 4 encoded state: 5 encoded state: 6 encoded state: 7 encoded state: 8 encoded state: 9 encoded state: 10 encoded state: 11 encoded state: 12 encoded state: 13 encoded state: 14 encoded state: 15
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Please note that the value depends on positions of each slide switches. The below table shows the mapping between ON/OFF position and the integer value for 4-position DIP switch:

Position-1Position-2Position-3Position-4Binary ValueDecimal Value
OFF OFF OFF OFF 0000 0
OFF OFF OFF ON 0001 1
OFF OFF ON OFF 0010 2
OFF OFF ON ON 0011 3
OFF ON OFF OFF 0100 4
OFF ON OFF ON 0101 5
OFF ON ON OFF 0110 6
OFF ON ON ON 0111 7
ON OFF OFF OFF 1000 8
ON OFF OFF ON 1001 9
ON OFF ON OFF 1010 10
ON OFF ON ON 1011 11
ON ON OFF OFF 1100 12
ON ON OFF ON 1101 13
ON ON ON OFF 1110 14
ON ON ON ON 1111 15

Video Tutorial

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